# Online lectures

## Common modules

### 1. What is food packaging

#### 1.1 Panorama of food packaging | 1️⃣🎞️

Learn the seven functions of food packaging - level basic author: TUM

• History and overview of food packaging of food packaging

#### 1.2 Packaging materials and shaping process | 🔟🎞️📙

Packaging systems can be made from various materials - level basic author: UCP

• Glass packaging 1/2

• Glass packaging - 2/2

• Metal packaging

• Plastic packaging - 1/2

• Plastic packaging - 2/2

• Paper and paperboard - 1/2

• Paper and paperboard - 2/2

• Bio-based materials for packaging applications

• Cork as food packaging

• Wood Packaging

#### 1.3 Basic legal framework | 1️⃣🎞️📙

Food packaging must comply with several obligations and legislations on chemicals, contact material, environment, consumer safety. - level basic author: LNE

• Overview of the legal framework (no prerequisites)

### 2. Properties of food packaging materials

#### 2.1 Thermal, mechanical and barrier properties | 5️⃣🎞️

Methods and standards used to determine food packaging properties. - level basic author: UB

• Thermal properties

• Mechanical properties

• Mass transfer properties

• Optical properties

• Surface properties

#### 2.2 Food preservation technology and packaging | 1️⃣

Introduction to food preservation and packaging technologies: thermal processing, aseptic packaging, modified atmosphere. - level basic author: UCP

• 💬part 1/1
Introduction to preservation and packaging technologies

#### 2.3 Chemical and physical stability of packaging materials | 2️⃣

Chemical and physical stability of packaging materials (please read §2.1 and §2.2 before) - level intermediate
author: UZAG-PBF

• 💬part 1/2
Food-packaging interactions: permeation, sorption/desorption, migration

• 💬part 2/2
Strategies to reduce food-packaging interactions and to improve packaging inertia

#### 2.4 Mechanical design of packaging | 1️⃣📖📙

Mechanical engineering of food packaging (please read §2.1 and §2.2 before) - level intermediate author: APT

• The basics of mechanical engineering for food packaging designer

### 3. Packaging and food preservation

#### 3.1 Common physical chemical factors affecting food stability | 1️⃣🎞️🍟

Effects of water, oxygen, light, flavor losses, fresh food products, functionality requirements (please read §2.4 before) - level intermediate author: TUM

• Overview physical and chemical processes impacting the shelf-life of food-products (processed or not)

#### 3.2 Food packaging and shelf life | 4️⃣🎞️🍟📙

Shelf-life is a concept covering many facets in food (please read §3.1 before) - level intermediate author: UB

• Shelf life definition(s)

• Factors affecting shelf life

• How to study shelf life. The concept of accelerated shelf-life.

• How to calculate/predict shelf life

### 4. Innovations in food packaging

#### 4.1 Biobased and biodegradable materials | 2️⃣🎞️

• from polymers to bioplastics

• cellulose derivates, polylactic acid, polyhydroxyalkanoates

#### 4.2 Active packaging | 2️⃣🎞️

With the concept of active packaging, the packaging system is not inert anymore and the active system is interacting with the food and/or its atmosphere. Active systems require to be beneficial for the food. Note that the use of active systems may have legal implications. (please read §1 before) - level intermediate author: CSIC

• Overview, oxygen scavengers, CO2 absorbing/releasing systems, ethylene scavengers, flavor/odor absorber/releaser, antioxidants

• Humidity control, anti-fogging agents, antimicrobial packaging, microwave susceptor, active regulation of temperature, shelf-heating/shelf-cooling

#### 4.3 Smart packaging | 1️⃣🎞️

Smart packaging concepts bring intelligent functions to the packaging (detecting, sensing, recording, tracing, communicating, applying some mathematical logic) (please read §1 before) - level intermediate author: CSIC

• Overview, indicators, RFID, sensors, commercially available intelligent packaging systems

#### 4.4 Nanotechnology strategies | 1️⃣🎞️

Nanotechnology is an umbrella name covering different technologies, capabilities and impacts. They are essential to advanced, active, smart food packaging systems. - level intermediate author: CSIC

• Definitions, nanoscale additives, examples of gains and applications

## Specialized modules

### 1. Risk assessment

#### 1.1 Hazard identification and characterization | 2️⃣

Any chemical is likely to produce some form of adverse effect if taken in sufficient quantity". The concepts of acute toxicology and new concepts (endocrine disruption, low-dose effects and non-monotonic dose response, additive effects, biotests, SAR and QSAR models...) - level intermediate, advanced author: UB

• 💬part 1/2
Introduction: history, basic concepts, risk vs hazard, endocrine disruptors in food contact materials, the risk assessment process

• 💬part 2/2
Methodologies for hazard identification and characterization | In Silico SAR and QSAR methods, tools (OECD, Vega-NIC, Derek Nexus, ToxTree, Caesar, EPIsuite) | In vitro vs in vivo studies

### 2. Decision making and advanced risk management techniques

The concepts presented in this section uses the dimensionless formulation presented in §4.2.

#### 2.1 Introduction to decision theory and risk management | 1️⃣

Taking decisions under uncertainty may look usually more an art than a science. It is not correct and many results obtained in decision theory can be used in risk management. Very conservative scenarios minimize the risk to claim that a food packaging is safe, when it is not (risk of first kind = risk for the consumer). Conversely, they maximize the risk to discard a design, a formulation when it is safe (risk of second kind = risk for the supplier). A compromise exists by listing alternative scenarios and by clarifying the sources of uncertainty. A model with too much safety factors will provide unrealistic scenarios and will be unable to rank alternatives (i.e. to order scenarios according to the real risk of migration into foods ). - level intermediate, advanced author: INRAE

• 💬part 1/1
Introduction to decision theory and risk management.

#### 2.2 Managing uncertainty by intervals and worst-case scenarios | 1️⃣

For any quantity involved in migration/decision models, it is easy to define a lower and an upper bounds. From these simple considerations, a full monotonic algebra can be derived. As an example: min+min=min, max+max=max. This lecture presents physically-inspired rules to derive similar monotonic scenarios for migration modeling. Two principles i) the mass action law (all transfer are proportional to initial amounts, transferred amounts cannot exceed total migration) and ii) entropy production (maximizing the dispersion of substances with time) are used to build robust scenarios subjected to strong uncertainties on chemical affinities and diffusivities. A methodology for a judicious choice of transport and thermodynamic parameters is exemplified. It is shown that they can orient irreversibly mass transfer in space and in time. The method is accepted for compliance testing.- level advanced author: INRAE

• 💬part 1/1
Principles of monotonic (conservative) calculations of migration in presence of uncertainty.

#### 2.3 Probabilistic approaches and Bayesian approaches | 1️⃣

Mass transfer equations (transport and boundary conditions) are not linear in time and space. Monotonic properties, shown in 2.2, are used to derive a general methodology to calculate migration and food contamination, when all properties are governed by arbitrary statistics representing either variabilities (initial amounts, thicknesses, contact times, temperature) or uncertainty (diffusivities, chemical affinity). This lecture will enable you to evaluate the probability the contamination of food exceeds a prescribed value. As a result, the calculated distributions can be used for calculating exposure by taking into account (or not) the practices of the consumer and of the supply chain. - level advanced author: INRAE

• 💬part 1/1
Probabilistic and Bayesian descriptions of migration.

### 3. Legislation regulation of food contact materials

#### 3.1 EU legislation, national regulations, US regulations, others | 1️⃣📖🎞️🍟

Since 1976, the regulation of food contact materials, including food packaging, is managed at the European level. However, not all of 17 groups of materials benefit from harmonized regulations. This lecture provides an overview of applicable regulations and of their principles. They obey to the same aim protecting consumers. - level intermediate author: LNE

• Regulatory framework in the EU and the USA

#### 3.2 GMP and quality assurance standards | 1️⃣📙

Food contact materials need to be produced and recycled according to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), Safety & Quality management systems. The responsibilities and and the possible certification systems are presented in this lecture. - level intermediate author: LNE

• GMP, Safety & Quality management system, Responsibilities and Certification

### 4. Mass transfer in food packaging

#### 4.1 Principles of mass transfer | 2️⃣🎞️

Understanding mass transfer (diffusion, sorption/desorption, permeation, migration) is essential to the packaging designer, food and process engineer, risk assessor: Which material to choose (alone or in association)? Which thickness to reach a prescribed thickness? Are my specific migration levels acceptable? The considered solute/migrant/permeant can be a gas or an organic chemical. - level intermediate author: UZAG-PBF

• Principles of mass transfer - Mass transfer in food packaging

• Principles of mass transfer - Mass transfer in food packaging

#### 4.2 Migration modeling for monomaterials | 1️⃣📖🎞️⛳🍟ℹ️🔢

Desorption of substances from materials in direct contact with food (of finite volume $V_F$) is coined "migration". This mass transfer is full described in a simple case by the a dimensionless time $Fo=\frac{D_P\times t}{l_p^2}$ , the packaging-to-food volume ratio $L_{PF}=\frac{V_P}{V_F}$ and the partition coefficient $K_{FP}=\frac{C_P^{eq}}{C_P^{eq}}$. This lecture will explain why the migration is so different between fatty and aqueous food products, between a rubber and a glassy material, between a small and large migrant... - level intermediate author: INRAE

• Mass transfer modeling from monolayer materials: application to compliance testing

#### 4.3 Modeling for multi-materials, multi-steps process | 1️⃣📖🎞️⛳🍟ℹ️🔢

The results of §4.2 are generalized to multimaterials and multilayers enabling the simulation of the migration of adhesive, printing ink.. constituents. - level advanced author: INRAE

• Mass transfer from multi-materials: compliance testing, risk assessment, safe-by-design​, functional barriers

#### 4.4 Calculation of permeability in composite systems | 1️⃣🎞️

The results of 4.3 are exemplified at steady state to derive effective permeabilities from composite systems. - level intermediate, advanced
author: TUM

• From ideal laminates to materials with defects and dispersed particles.

#### 4.5 Multicomponent diffusion, predictive models | 1️⃣

Diffusion and solubility at molecular scale and in non-ideal systems: how to integrate them in mass transfer models? How to relate the chemical structure of diffusants with their diffusivity and chemical affinity in polymers? How do temperature and plasticizing activate diffusion? How to get robust estimates? - level intermediate, advanced

• 💬part 1/1
Diffusion and solubility at molecular scale (overview) and in non-ideal systems.

#### 4.6 Micro holes and leaks in packaging | 1️⃣

Micro holes and leaks modify significantly the barrier properties of food packaging: how to characterize them? measure and simulate their effects. - level intermediate, advanced
author: UB

• 💬part 1/1
Micro holes and leaks in packaging – measurement and modeling.

### 5. FMECA applied to food packaging design

It is recommended to follow sections §1., §2. and §4. before starting by this section.

#### 5.1 History and principles of FMEA-FMECA | 1️⃣🎞️

When something dramatic occurs, there is not one single cause. Failure modes, effects, and criticality analysis is a methodology ($FMECA$) originating from the aeronautic industry to identify and analyze: all potential failure models of the various components of a system, the effects these failures may have on the system, how to avoid the failures and/or to mitigate their effects. The microbiological risks and some physical risks are managed already by the food industry by closely related methods (e.g., HACCP). The $FMECA$ method has been proposed to manage chemical risks associated to migration and cross mass-transfer between materials. The method is compliant with the obligations set in regulations (EC) 2023/2006, 282/2008. They open the way to safe-by-design/preventive approaches of the contamination. - level intermediate, advanced author: INRAE

• History and principles of FMEA – FMECA approaches, link with regulation 2023/2006/EC

#### 5.2 Diagram-based approaches | 1️⃣

The FMECA approach requires to build large inventories and functional relations between entities and events. Diagrams help to organize the initial brain-storming and to orient future priorities. - level advanced

author: INRAE

#### 5.3 Computer-aided approaches | 1️⃣

Computer-aided approaches facilitate the deployment of FMECA approaches. The lecture illustrates various situations calculated with the open-source software FMECAengine: identification of critical steps, components, substances - level advanced author: INRAE

### 6. Molecular and thermodynamical modeling

#### 6.1 Principles (forcefields, statistical-ensembles), overview of online databases | 1️⃣

Molecular and thermodynamical modeling can fill the gap of missing data for some polymers, specific molecules (non-intentionally added substances), conditions (migration at rubber state) etc. With time, calculations tend to be cheaper and faster than experiments, while offering similar reliability. - level advanced author: INRAE

• 💬part 1/1
Principles of molecular and thermodynamical modeling: forcefields, statistical-ensembles, on-line databases

#### 6.2 Microscopic theories of transport coefficients and free-energies | 1️⃣

Diffusion in solids are less described than in liquids and gases. Theories are scarce and the last results of research are presented. - level advanced author: INRAE

• 💬part 1/1
Microscopic theories of molecular diffusion in polymers.

#### 6.3 Calculations using fluctuation theorems | 1️⃣

Properties related to free-energies (solubilities, activity coefficients, miscibility...) can be calculated by brute force calculations at atomistic scale assuming a disordered mixture at molecule scale. - level advanced
author: INRAE

• 💬part 1/1
Calculations using fluctuation theorems, Flory-Huggins theory, regular solution theory, molecular dynamics

### 7. Eco-design

#### 7.1 Methodologies used in life cycle assessment | 2️⃣📖🎞️

Food Packaging needs to be sustainable. What does it mean? How to use Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) to evaluate the impact of food packaging and to eco-design new food packaging. - level intermediate author: UCP

• Sustainability & Packaging

• Life Cycle Assessment

#### 7.2 Tools for life cycle impact assessment | 1️⃣🎞️🍟

This lecture introduces the concepts and definitions used in packaging eco-design along with case studies. Case studies illustrate the advances and limits of LCA analysis and the interest of an evaluation of food/packaging systems through the entire supply chain. - level intermediate, advanced

author: APT

• Eco-design of Packaging: overview, why, functional analysis, case studies, advances and limits

Food packaging accounts for approximately 40% of the uses of plastics, but accounts for more than half of plastic waste. Non-food uses are more durable, while the lifespan of plastic packaging usually does not exceed half a year. The fragmentation of uncollected plastics and their reuse as recycled textile fibers is the main source of microplastics and marine litter. The understanding of biodegradation phenomena is essential to appreciate the impact of plastics on the environment, whether they are biodegradable or not. - level basic, intermediate

author: APT

• 💬part 1/1

#### 7.4 Environmental impact of plastics and recycling | 1️⃣🎞️

There is no doubt plastics have changed our society and its habits since their use in the 1950s. Thanks to their versatility and workability, plastics have been used to meet all the needs of human beings, from physiological needs, safety, social belonging, esteem, and self-actualization. Today, pollution by plastics, due to mismanagement of the collection system, is one of the most important global issue facing our society. The first part is devoted to the environmental impact of plastics. Global data on plastics for food packaging are presented as well as the health risk associated with microplastics in soils and oceans. The second part is dedicated to the recycling of plastics. In this section, the actors in the recycling chain and the regulations related to the recycling process, materials and labels are discussed. Next, the concept of recyclability and the differences in recycling terminology (recyclable, renewable, biodegradable, compostable…) are explained. Finally, the main differences between mechanical and chemical recycling are explained. - level intermediate author: UB

• Recycling and environmental impact of food packaging.

#### 7.5 Safety assessment of recycling processes | 1️⃣🎞️

The directive (EU) 2019/904 requires the phase out of single-use plastics, the generalization of recycling and the reuse of materials in contact with food. The recycling of materials for food contact is authorized in Europe and the USA but under certain conditions. These include the control of deposits, cleaning of polymers, mechanical or chemical recycling, and the implementation of good industrial practices within the framework of regulation (EU) 2023/2006. For health safety reasons, only mechanical recycling of PET is now widespread and complies with clearly defended standards (regulation (EU) 282/2008). This course explains the conditions for the evaluation of recycled PET (rPET): validation of a recycling process and of the utilization of the recycled material. -level intermediate, advanced author: UCP

• Safety assessment of PET recycling processes for food contact

### 8. Forming, filling and sealing processes

#### 8.1 Introduction to mechanical processes | 1️⃣

The most important factors for a company: i) Product quality from the customer's point of view, ii) Compliance with legal requirements, iii) Profitability: costs vs. revenue. These factors are essentially determined by the packaging material and the packaging process. This lecture is an introduction to U8.2-U8.6. - level basic, intermediate author: TUM

• 💬part 1/1
Introduction into mechanical processes in packaging

#### 8.2 Forming processes | 1️⃣

This lecture describes plastics forming processes that can be directly integrated into a packaging line: thermoforming, cold forming, erecting. - level intermediate author: TUM

• 💬part 1/1
Plastics forming process applicable to food packaging lines.

#### 8.3 Filling processes | 1️⃣

How to fill small 25 g chip bags at a high rate and with a precise weight without breaking them. This is the challenge of filling packaging with solid food. The weight cannot be exact in relation to the printed value on the package, but it must absolutely be within precise tolerance values by legislation in place (European rules). This lecture presents the principles and their implementation for powdered dry food but also for ready meals that do not flow. - level intermediate, advanced author: TUM

• 💬part 1/1
Filling Processes and dosing principles, devices, how to assess their accuracy

#### 8.4 Sealing processes | 1️⃣

The safety and wholesomeness of industrially processed food cannot be considered without a good seal. There is no point in paying for a barrier package if the closure is porous and allows gases (oxygen, water vapour) to pass through. This lecture details the systems of closing, sealing, sealing, gluing. Please refer to §4.6 for the defect analysis. - level intermediate, advanced
author: TUM

• 💬part 1/1
Closing, hot/cold sealing, welding, sealed seams and packages

#### 8.5 Beverage filling processes | 1️⃣

The bottles are filled at speeds of several thousand or even tens of thousands of bottles per hour. The bottles are eventually cleaned, filled, heat treated (if necessary), labeled, cartoned and palletized in parallel. Not only does the bottle have to be filled with the right volume, but also the overpressure and usually negative pressure requirements have to be met. The constraints of asepticity/sanitization, leak tightness and air/oxygen removal are discussed in this course. - level intermediate, advanced author: TUM

• 💬part 1/1
Beverage filling: principles, closing and labelling

#### 8.6 Forming, filling and sealing machines | 1️⃣

Ready-to-eat foods are packaged in a variety of different shapes and sizes to suit the use and minimize food waste: bowls, cups, blister packs, bags... or simply wrapped in film. The aseptic packaging allows the conservation over several days or even weeks without heat treatment. Like modified atmosphere filling, it has its own constraints. In particular, the volume of air/atmosphere that must be maintained under strong aseptic constraints without affecting production rates or the safety of the final product must be minimized. - level intermediate, advanced author: TUM

• 💬part 1/1
Principles and overview of forming, filling, sealing, bag and thermoforming machines.

#### 8.7 Surface treatments and coatings | 1️⃣📖🎞️

Surface treatments increase the surface energy of the packaging surface in order to maximize the contact surface area and the adhesion of adhesives, inks and coatings. Principles and available technologies are reviewed in this lecture. - level intermediate author: UZAG-PBF

• Surface treatment and coating principles and technologies.

#### 8.8 Packaging line optimization | 1️⃣

A packaging line is a series system of the stages of the packaging process. For each stage, one or more (parallel) machines are used. These machines frequently have to deal with failures. The machines are put in a sequence and connected by conveyors, which can also serve as buffers. Which tools to optimize the packaging line and assure efficiency? Efficiency is the quality of being efficient, meaning that it produces the expected results without waste. Follow the lecture to learn more. - level advanced
author: APT

• 💬part 1/1
Packaging line and process optimization: concepts and methods .

ERASMUS + Project - 2018-2020
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• send any request to Olivier Vitrac

List of partners

• CROATIA (UZAG-PBF)

• FRANCE (ACTIA, LNE, AGROPARISTECH/INRAE, AGROSUPDIJON)

• GERMANY (TUM)

• PORTUGAL (UCP)

• SPAIN (CSIC)

List of contributors

• Olivier VITRAC, INRAE